Questions are likely to be raised over the Labour leader’s ability to manage his party after 19 MPs ignored his orders to abstain from voting in the bill, which was to repeal the European Communities Act 1972.
The rebellion comes despite an estimated two-thirds to Labour constituencies demanding to leave the 28-state bloc in last year’s referendum.
Scrapping the act, which was ultimately approved by a majority of 250, means Britain is no longer automatically bound to European Union laws.
The 19 Labour MPs were led by key remainers such as Ben Bradshaw and David Lammy (see full list below).
Jeremy Corbyn is facing a Brexit backlash from MPs such as David Lammy and Ben Bradshaw
Brexiteers Frank Field, Kate Hoey and Graham Stringer were three Labour MPs also went against their leader. However, they voted with the Government for repealing the act.
Mr Field was heckled by colleagues after telling them they “needed educating” over the fact most of their constituents voted to leave the EU.
Labour’s problems come as the Conservatives also suffered infighting.
Anna Soubry led a rebellion against party whips. The Remainer even called fellow Tory, and leading Brexiteer, Bernard Jenkins “a disgrace” during the Commons debate.
Mr Jenkin had said: "Any MPs who voted for Article 50 but then do not want to fix the date are open to the charge that they don't want us to leave the European Union.”
Corbyn's whips instructed MPs to abstain from the vote
But Theresa May ultimately won in her bid to make British law supreme over European Union law.
The final vote was 318 to 68.
The bill also allows a transfer of EU rules into British law on exit day, ensuring continuity.
Yesterday was the first in eight days of debates as MPs go through hundreds of pages of tabled ammendments.
Brexit minister Steven Baker said scrapping the 1972 Act "could scarcely be more significant”.
He added: ”It is a historic step in delivering our exit from the EU in accordance with last year's referendum.
Frank Field berated Labour colleagues for their Remainer stance
It is a historic step in delivering our exit from the EU
"If we were not to repeal the Act, we would still exit the EU at the end of the Article 50 process from the perspective of EU law but there would be confusion and uncertainty about the law on our own statute book.
"It would be unclear if UK or EU law took precedence.
"The status of new EU law would also be unclear."
The main sticking point yesterday saw Remainers argue putting the date for Brexit into law was too restrictive, especially if trade talks with EU officials needed to be extended.
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The 19 Labour MPs who voted against the repeal were
- Rushanara Ali
- Ben Bradshaw
- Ruth Cadbury
- Ann Clwyd
- Ann Coffey
- Neil Coyle
- Mary Creagh
- Geraint Davies
- Louise Ellman
- Mike Gapes
- Helen Hayes
- Rupa Huq
- Darren Jones
- David Lammy
- Chris Leslie
- Pat McFadden
- Catherine McKinnell
- Albert Owen
- Tulip Siddiq.